Today’s top tip: Want to find the strongest research evidence for your project? Go to http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed & add the strongest type of research designs as one of your search terms. For example, add the terms meta-analysis or systematic review to your other search terms. **********************************************
Now to the new! What is a systematic review of descriptive studies? [Note: For information on stronger levels of research “I like my coffee (and my evidence) strong!)]
First, remember that in a descriptive study, the researcher merely watches or listens to see what is happening. Descriptive studies do not test interventions.
Second, a systematic review (not to be too silly) is a review that is done systematically in order to include all literature on a particular topic . The authors will tell us where they searched for studies, what search terms they used, and what years they searched. That way we can feel sure that all relevant articles are included.
Therefore, in a systematic review of descriptive studies the authors
- Collect non-experimental studies related to the problem they are trying to solve,
- Critically review them, &
- Write up that analysis for you and me.
You won’t see a lot of numbers or statistics in these reviews of non-experimental studies.
Systematic review of descriptive studies are weaker than other levels of evidence in part because they are critical reviews of non-experimental studies in which the researchers only observed subjects. Those non-experimental studies that they are reviewing may be quantitative with results reported in numbers or qualitative with results reported in words.
Here’s an example with results reported in words (qualitative): Yin, Tse, & Wong (2015) systematically reviewed studies for what factors affect RNs giving PRN opioids in the postop period. They searched publications 2000-2012 and ended up with 39 relevant studies. Within those 39 articles were descriptive studies that identified 4 basic influences on opioid PRN administration by RNs to postop patients: “(i) nurses’ knowledge and attitudes about pain management; (ii) the situation of nurses’ work practices in administrating range orders for opioid analgesics; (iii) factors that influenced nurses’ work practices; and (iv) perceived barriers to effective pain management from the nurse’s perspective.” [note: In this study a few of the 39 studies were experimental in which something was done to subjects and then outcomes measured, and Yin et al., commented separately on what those showed.]
Critical thinking: What are key differences between a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and a systematic review of descriptive studies?
Reference found with search terms: review of descriptive studies nursing pain – Yin, H.H.,Tse, M.M., & Wong, F.K. (2015). Systematic review of the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors which influence nursing administration of opioids in the postoperative period. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, doi: 10.1111/jjns.12075.