Category Archives: qualitative

Is History “Bunk”? We report. You Decide.

History?  Really?  Fascinating!  Ever thought about all the stories behind your own present life?

Check out this youtube dramatized documentary about Nurse Mary Seacole.  I promise – you’ll enjoy:   

You can be a part of documenting such stories, including your own.  Can I pique your interest with these examples about historical research?

1. Artifacts: Example = The American Collectors of Infant Feeders:

Infant feeder

The American Collectors of Infant Feeders is a non-profit organization whose primary purpose is to gather and publish information pertaining to the feeding of infants throughout history. The collecting of infant feeders and related items is promoted.

2. Interviews: Example =  Want to do interviews of interesting faculty, students, leaders, “ordinary” nurses?  Check out the Oral History Association    In addition to fostering communication among its members, the OHA encourages standards of excellence in the collection, preservation, dissemination and uses of oral testimony.


3. Stories from the “ordinary: Example: My Mother’s War – “Helen T.Burrey was an American nurse who served as a Red Cross Nurse during World War I. She documented her experience in both a journal and a scrapbook which has been treasured by her daughter, Mary Murphy. Ms Murphy has placed many of these items on the Internet for people to access and it provides a first-hand account of that experience. Additionally she has a variety of links to other WWI resources.” (quoted from AAHN Resources online)

Army history

4. Ethnic studies: Example=  Black Nurses in History “This is a ‘bibliography and guide to web resources’ from the UMDNJ and Coriell Research Library. Included are Mamie O. Hail, Mary Eliza Mahoney, Jessie Sleet Scales, Mary Seacole, Mabel Keaton Staupers, Susie King Taylor, Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman.” (quoted from AAHN Resources online)

Want more?  

Critical thinking:  Don’t forget to save your own materials.  Your life is history!  What in your life is most interesting?  Have you written it down or dictated it into your iphone voice memo? There is GREAT interest in “ordinary” men and women.  Many times items are tossed because they are “just letters” or “only old records,” or “stuff.” Just Don’t Do It.


Listen up! Don’t interrupt!

Researchers collect two types of data in their studiescounting-sheetword-art

  1. Numbers (called quantitative data)
  2. Words & narratives (called qualitative data)

StorytellerOne source of rich word or narrative (qualitative) data for answering nursing questions is nurses’ stories.  Dr. Pat Benner RN, author of Novice to Expert explains two things we can do to help nurses fully tell their stories so we can learn the most from their practice.

  1. Listen well without interrupting
  2. Help nurses ‘unpack’ their stories 

Check out this excellent 2:59 video of Dr. Benner’s and revolutionize how you learn about nursing from nursing stories:  Preview: The use of Narratives 

Critical thinking:  For a study using narratives in research see  Leboul et al. (2017).  Palliative sedation challenging the professional competency of health care providers and staff: A qualitative focus group and personal written narrative study.  [full text available thru PubMed at].    1) Do you think the authors listened and unpacked information from the focus groups & written narratives; 2)  Do you think there might be a difference in the way people write narratives and verbally tell narratives?   3) How might that difference if any affect the research findings?

For more information:  Check out The Power of Story  by Wang & Geale (2015) at


“Smile (or not). You’re on candid camera!” Patients’ covertly recording care

“What might happen if patients were to use digital devices such as smartphones to covertly record clinical encounters? Increasing reports of the practice of patient’s covertly recording clinical encounters suggest that these are no longer hypothetical questions.”(Tsulukidze et al, 2015).iphone camera2

Researchers in 2015 search Google & Google blog search engines to find written texts (excluding audio & video recordings) that were about patient covert recording of clinical encounters. They analyzed 62 texts from patients, clinicians, advocates, dentists, insurers, and lawyers. Four(4) themes emerged that represented the groups’ reactions.

  1. Such recording is a new behavior eliciting strong positive and negative reactions.  Comment –
    • e.g., “accept the prospect of covert recording as a product of the digital age and ensure that it does not work against you [clinicians]” (Contributor 3, editor, T40)
  2. Covert recording shows a lack of patient trust in providers or the system 
    • e.g.,…ALWAYS record EVERYTHING. These people [physicians] can lie, cheat and steal and act immorallyand do so regularly. (Contributor 13, T36)
  3. Through recording patients were asserting new control over and ownership of the clinical encounters.
    • e.g., When a patient seeks a consultation […], the information being processed is almost exclusively relating to the patient. Under the Data Protection Act, that data is therefore personal to the patient. By recording it, that patient is merely viewed as processing their own data. (Contributor 15, dental adviser, T42)
  4. Responses were confused & conflicting, with patients & providers seeking legal and ethical counsel about the recordings.
    • e.g., Would any of the practicing physicians here remove a patient from their care if you found out your patient was secretly recording you? (Contributor 22, physician, T30)   (Tsulukidze et al)

lightbuld among rocksCOMMENTARY: As with all qualitative studies, the value is on getting new, in-depth information on something that we know very little about, and their sample represented diverse perspectives.  A weakness is that the researchers used existing documents so that researchers couldn’t explore further and were limited to what these particular individuals chose to put out on a public site. Because RNs were not included, a parallel study of covert recording of RNs would be valuable.  RN-patient encounters are necessarily different from physician-patient encounters, and RNs have been rated by the public as the most trusted profession year after year in Gallup polls. I am unaware if anyone  knows the who, what, when, where, why, and how of covert recording of RNs.  Nonetheless, RNs should examine whether they would be comfortable with being recorded because we know that privacy standards, patient empowerment, and the proliferation of recording devices have changed.

CRITICAL THINKINGImagine that your most recent patient encounter had been recorded.  Clinically would you have done anything differently?  Ethically do you consider this right and good or wrong and bad?  Why?  Legally does your facility have and enforce policies/standards related to patients’ recording?   Whom in your facility would you go to for advice if you learned this was happening?  What are related patient privacy issues?  Should we fight against patients’ recording or assume that it will happen and find ways to make it work in provider/facility interests?  How would we do that?question

FOR MORE INFO: The FREE  full text is available at   Tsulukidze, et al., (2015,  May 1).Patients Covertly Recording Clinical Encounters: Threat or Opportunity? A Qualitative Analysis of Online Texts. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5): e0125824.